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A ADR : this is the acronym for “Accord for dangerous goods by road”. This is an international regulation which encompasses all the countries of contintental Europe, including the Russian Federation.

AROM : “Aire de Recyclages des Dechets Menagers” or “processing line for household wastes”. This uses a technology which has been developed and patented by the Pena Group. This unique process permits the recycling and recovery of 80% of residual household wastes (RHW).

AQSIQ licence : the AQSIQ (General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine) is the Chinese administrative authority which is responsible for the control of imports and exports within Chinese territory. This body issues accreditations which are essential to any dispatch operations. Pena Metals has already been in possession of this accreditation for the last 10 years.

Aerobic fermentation : this is one step in the process for the conversion of organic wastes into compost. Aerobic fermentation, associated with sterilization, permits the breakdown of organic matter by the application of a high temperature, thereby destroying any microbes and pathogenic agents. The Adonis® technology developed by the AMENDOR design office permits the production of composts with a high agronomic rating from green wastes, bio-wastes, treatment station slurries, animal by-products and residual household refuse.


Biowastes : these are solid biodegradable household wastes. This category includes food wastes, green wastes, paper and card.

Biodegradable : a products is classified as biodegradable if, after use, it can be broken down naturally (digested) by living organisms (micro-organisms).

Biomass : biomass represents the combination of organic matter of plant or animal origin. This term includes numerous wastes, including e.g. timber, straw, animal litter, treatment slurries, etc.. These materials can be used as a source of energy by combustion.

Bale press : a bale press is a machine which is used for the compression of materials into bales (volumes of compacted materials, for example PET bottles, textiles, card, etc.).


Collecte :  an operation involving the removal of wastes from collection points, for the subsequent delivery thereof to a sorting, consolidation, recovery, processing or storage facility.

Commercial wastes : these are wastes, whether hazardous or non-hazardous, the initial producer of which is not a household. This definition is intended to replace the term “General Industrial Wastes”, in order to encompass all the activities which generate such wastes.

Compost : a product generated by the composting of wastes. It can be employed as an organic amendment, for the improvement of soil structure, or as a fertilizer for the provision of plant nutrition.

Composting : this is a biological process which permits the accelerated breakdown of organic wastes to produce compost. Composting reactions release heat which sterilizes the compost, i.e. eliminates pathogenic agents which are contained in the source wastes.

CSDU : “Centre de Stockages des Dechets Ultimes” or “final waste disposal facility”, previously described as a depository or CET (“Centre d’Enfouissement Technique” or “industrial landfill site”.

There are three types of CSDU:

  • Type 1 CSDU: for hazardous industrial wastes
  • Type 2 CSDU: for household wastes or similar
  • Type 3 CSDU: for “inert” wastes.

Commercial wastes : these are wastes, whether hazardous or non-hazardous, the initial producer of which is not a household. This definition is intended to replace the term “General Industrial Wastes”, in order to encompass all the activities which generate such wastes.


Delegated management : a method for the operation of public services, or services in the public interest, which fall within the remit of public authorities and are delivered for the benefit of citizens who, in most cases, pay charges directly to the delegated operator. The delegated operator assumes responsibility for the operation of the service concerned: waste collection, processing and disposal, water distribution, sanitation and sewage treatment.

Drum : this is a rotary cylinder, which can be used for the purposes of separation (mutual isolation of different wastes). This device is specifically employed for screening, during the process for the conversion of organic wastes into compost.


Effluent : a generic term describing urban or industrial waste water, also described as sewage, and more generally any liquid wastes which carry a certain pollutant load (in solution, colloidal or particulate). These effluents contain organic or chemical constituents which are harmful to the environment.

Exhaust air : this is air which has previously been used for ventilation purposes. This term describes contaminated air. The air concerned may have been contaminated, for example, by the presence of persons.

Ecocentre : a centre for the voluntary collection and sorting of wastes, which can undertake the recovery, recycling, incineration or deposition thereof in a landfill facility. The Adonis Ecocentre, located in Saint Jean d’Illac (33) was the first composting platform in France to be certified to ISO standard 14001.


Fermentable fraction of household refuse: these are decomposable household wastes which are suitable for composting: kitchen wastes, certain green wastes, paper, card and sanitary textiles.

Fuel : this is a substance which is capable of burning in the presence of another reagent (described as an oxidizing agent) to produce energy.


General Industrial Wastes (GIW) : this category includes non-inert and non-hazardous wastes which are generated by businesses, industrial operators, tradesmen, craftsmen or service providers. In most cases, this category of wastes included scrap metal, non-ferrous metals, paper, card, glass, textiles and timber.

Green wastes: this term includes residues of plant origin, originating from gardens and the maintenance of green spaces.

Greenhouse effect: the greenhouse effect is a phenomenon whereby the Earth’s surface and the lower layers of the atmosphere undergo heat-up associated with the fact that certain gases in the atmosphere absorb and reflect back a proportion of the infrared radiation emitted by the Earth, such that the latter offsets the solar radiation which it absorbs itself.

Greenhouse gas: a greenhouse gas is a gaseous substance which absorbs infrared radiation generated by the Earth. Greenhouse gases are considered to be one of the causes of global warming.


Hazardous wastes : these are wastes which are characterized by their hazardous properties with respect to the environment or health, associated with short-, medium- or long-term effects, whether direct or indirect. For this reason, these wastes must be collected, transported and processed in an appropriate manner.

Hazardous household wastes : these are toxic, inflammable and/or corrosive wastes which are generated by households. In general, this category of wastes includes paints, lacquers, adhesives, waxes, rust inhibitors, solvents, fluorescent tubes, neon lights, cosmetics, pesticides and waste oil.

Hedging: hedging is a strategy for the provision of cover against price fluctuations. Hedging is applied where doubts exist with regard to future market trends. This situation frequently occurs in the context of metal trading.

Household wastes : these are wastes which are collected in the context of public waste disposal services. They include the residual fraction of household refuse, large items which are collected door-to-door, selective collections, wastes collected for landfill, and items which are unsuitable for sorting and composting.

Hydrocarbons: a hydrocarbon is an organic compound which is comprised exclusively of atoms of carbon (C) and hydrogen (H). Hydrocarbons are inflammable, and do not mix with water. Refined from crude oil, they are specifically used as fuels for combustion engines.


ICPE: the term “Classified Installation for Environmental Protection” (ICPE) is applied to industrial plants, workshops, warehouses, worksites and, in general, installations which are operated or owned by any natural or legal person, whether in the public or private sector, which may present hazards or nuisances, either with respect to neighbourhood disturbances, with respect to health, safety and public hygiene, with respect to agriculture, with respect to the protection of nature, the environment and landscapes, with respect to the rational use of energy, or with respect to the preservation of sites, monuments and archaeological heritage features.

ISO 14001: a standard which ratifies the capability of a company or an organization for the management of the impact of their activity upon the environment, and for compliance with regulations.



L Local authorities : in everyday language, the term “local authority” describes what the French constitution calls a “territorial authority”. Territorial authorities are French administrative structures, operating separately from central government, which are required to represent the interests of the population within a specific territory.


Maturing: this term describes the stabilization of organic matter to form humus. This is one step in the process for the conversion of organic wastes into compost.


Non-ferrous metals: this term refers to all metals, with the exception of iron and alloys containing a minor fraction of iron. This category includes, for example, scrap copper, brass, aluminium or stainless steel.

Non-hazardous wastes : a waste which displays none of the hazard properties listed in Annex III to the European Parliament and Council Directive 2008/98/EC of 19th November 2008 relating to wastes and the repeal of certain directives.


Organic matter: organic matter (OM) is carbon-based matter which is generally produced by living organisms, whether plants, animals or micro-organisms. Unlike mineral matter, organic matter is frequently biodegradable. It can thus be easily recycled into compost or biogas.

Organic wastes : these include all organic residues and by-products generated by agriculture, by agri-foodstuffs industries or by public authorities which are comprised of non-synthetic organic matter, characterized by the presence of carbon atoms originating from living organisms, whether plants or animals. Also described as fermentable waste, this category comprises residues of plant or animal origin which can be broken down by micro-organisms. From these wastes, the Pena Group produces composts which are compliant with NFU standards 44-051 and 44-095, and are sold to farmers, landscaping professionals and private individuals.




Renewable energies: renewable energies are inexhaustible energy resources. They originate from natural elements: solar power, wind, falling water, tides, geothermal energy, plant growth, etc.. Renewable energies as classified as energy “flows” rather than energy “stocks”, themselves comprised of finite deposits of fossil fuels (oil, coal, gas, uranium). Conversely to fossil fuels, the exploitation of renewable energies generates little or no wastes or pollutant emissions. These are the energies of the future. At present, however, they are under-exploited in relation to their potential, given that these renewable energies account for only 20% of global electricity consumption.

RHW: the term Residual Household Wastes describes the wastes remaining after selective collection. These wastes are also described as “grey wastes”.


Sanitation : combination of techniques for the removal and treatment of sewage and residual slurries.

Slurries : the main waste generated by treatment stations further to the processing of liquid effluents, also described as sewage. These residual sediments are primarily comprised of animal and vegetable organic matter (dead bacteria)

Screening : this is the product finishing stage in the process for the conversion of wastes into compost. During this operation, materials are screened for the purposes of grading by particle size.

SRF : Solid Recovered Fuel, also described as substitute fuel. From non-hazardous wastes, the Pena Group produces a fuel with a high calorific value, which is suitable for use in boilers and cement furnaces as an alternative to fossil fuels.

Spreading: spreading is an agricultural technique which involves the distribution of various products over cultivated zones, forests, railway tracks, marshes, etc..

SPAN – Category 3: these are animal by-products. This type of waste includes “unprocessed matter” of animal origin. The company Pena processes this type of category 3 wastes, i.e. slaughterhouse products from abattoirs which are classified fit for human consumption. This is the only category which can be recovered, under certain conditions, as animal feed – categories 1 and 2 refer to animal by-products which are to be destroyed, and are prohibited for use as animal feed.


Taux de valorisation :

Trommel : Il s’agit d’un cylindre rotatif qui permet le délitage (séparation des déchets entre eux). Cet appareil est notamment utilisé pour le criblage, lors du processus de transformation des déchets organiques en compost.




Wastes :

  • 1. Food scraps or residues which are unsuitable for consumption or futher use.
  • 2. Materials which are scrapped on the grounds that they have no immediate value, or are left as residues from a process of operation.
  • 3. Non-combustible and non-usable products generated by the metabolism of living cells, which are to be subject to disposal.

Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) : also known by the acronym W3E, this term describes all end-of-life equipment which is powered by electricity or by means of electromagnetic fields, and equipment for the production, transmission and measurement of currents and fields. Specifically, this category includes scrap computers and IT equipment, telephones, household applicances, etc..

WTF : a waste tracking form, BSD in France, is a form which is intended to ensure the traceablity of hazardous wastes, and to constitute evidence of the disposal thereof for the responsible producer.